27th May 2012, 04:43 PM
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Study pattern of UGC NET in Human Resource Management? Objective questions for the same?

from where to study regarding new pattern of ugc net in human resource management & what type of objective questions will come

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8th September 2012, 07:21 PM
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Default Re: Study pattern of UGC NET in Human Resource Management? Objective questions for the same?

UGC NET Economics Syllabus 2012-2013:-


1. Micro-economic Analysis

Demand analysis – Marshallian, Hicksian and Revealed preference approaches
Theory of Production and Costs
Pricing and output under different forms of market structure
Factor Pricing analysis
Elements of general equilibrium and new welfare economics

2. Macro-economic Analysis

Determination of output and employment – Classical approach, Keynesian approach, Consumption hypotheses
Demand for Money – Fisher and Cambridge versions, Approaches of Keynesian, Friedman, Patinkin, Baumol and Tobin
Supply of Money, Determinants of money supply, High-powered money, Money multiplier
Phillips Curve analysis
Business cycles – Models of Samuelson, Hicks and Kaldor.
Macro-economic Equilibrium – Relative roles of monetary and fiscal policies

3. Development and Planning

Economic Growth, Economic Development and sustainable Development – Importance of institutions – Government and markets – Perpetuation of underdevelopment – Vicious circle of poverty, circular causation, structural view of underdevelopment – Measurement of development conventional, HDI and quality of life indices
Theories of Development – Classical, Marx and Schumpeter; Economic Growth – Harrod-Domar model, instability of equilibrium, Neoclassical growth – Solow’s model, steady state growth. Approaches to development : Balanced growth, critical minimum effort, big push, unlimited supply of labour, unbalanced growth, low income equilibrium trap
Indicators and measurement of poverty
Importance of agriculture and industry in economic development – choice of techniques and appropriate technology – Investment criteria – Elementary idea of cost-benefit analysis
Trade and Aid – International trade as ‘engine of growth’ – Globalization and LDC’s Objectives and role of monetary and fiscal policies in economic development Techniques of planning; Plan Models in India; planning in a market-oriented economy

4. Public Finance

Role of the Government in Economic activity – Allocation, distribution and stabilization functions; Private, Public and Merit goods
The Public Budgets – Kinds of Budgets, Zero-base budgeting, different concepts of budget deficits; Budgets of the Union Government in India Public Expenditure – Hypotheses; effects and evaluation
Public Revenue – Different approaches to the division of tax burden, incidence and effects of taxation; elasticity and buoyancy; taxable capacity Public Debt – Sources, effects, burden and its management
Fiscal Federalism -Theory and problems; Problems of Centre-State Financial relations in India
Fiscal Policy – Neutral and compensatory and functional finance; balanced budget multiplier

5. International Economics

Theories of International Trade : Empirical verification and Relevance International Trade under Imperfect competition Terms of Trade and Economic Growth – Secular Deterioration of Terms of Trade Hypothesis – a critical review
Equilibrium / disequilibrium in Balance of Payment – Traditional, Absorption and Monetary approaches for adjustment in the Balance of Payments, Foreign Trade multiplier
Impact of Tariffs, Partial and general equilibrium analysis; Political economy of Non-Tariff Barriers
Theory of regionalism at Global level – Collapse of Bretton-Wood System – Recent
Monetary reforms
Trade Policy and Reforms in India

6. Indian Economy

Basic Economic indicators – National income, performance of different sectors Trends in prices and money supply
Agriculture – Institutional and technological aspects, new agricultural policy Industry – New industrial policy and liberalization
Money and banking – Concepts of money supply, inflation, monetary policy and financial sector reforms
Public finance – Trends in revenue and expenditures of the Central and State Governments, Public debt; analysis of the Union Budget Foreign trade – Trends, Balance of payments and trade reforms Poverty, unemployment, migration and environment

7. Statistical Methods

Measures of Central tendency, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis
Elementary theory of probability – Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions
Simple correlation and regression analysis
Statistical inferences – Applications, sampling distributions (t, x2 and F tests),
sampling of attributes, testing of Hypothesis
Index numbers and time series analysis
Sampling and census methods, types of sampling and errors

PAPER III (A) [Core group]


Theory of Demand-Axiomatic approach, Demand functions, Consumerbehaviour
under conditions of uncertainty
Theory of production
Collusive and non-collusive oligopolies
Different models of objectives of the firm – Baumol, Morris and Williamson
Factor pricing
General equilibrium and Welfare Economics


Keynesian and post-Keynesian approaches to theory of output and employment; concept of investment multiplier; consumption hypotheses Theories of investment and accelerator
Theories of demand for money – Keynesian and post-Keynesian
Different approaches to money supply; money supply; components and determinants;
money multiplier
Output – price determination (aggregate supply and aggregate demand curve analysis)
Flerning-Mundell open economy model


Development and Growth – Role of institutions
Theories of growth and development – Models of growth of Joan Robinson and Kaldor; Technical Progress – Hicks, Harrod and learning by doing, production function approach to the determinants of growth : Endogenous growth : role of education, research and knowledge – explanation of cross country differentials in economic development and growth.
Theories of development – Classical, Marx, Schumpeter and structural analysis of development – Imperfect market paradigm, Lewis model of development, Ranis-Fei model, Dependency theory of development
Factors in economy development – natural resources, population, capital, Human Resource Development and infrastructure
Trade and development – trade as engine of growth, two-gap analysis, Prebisch, Singer and Myrdal views; gains from trade and LDCs


Theories of taxation, types, incidence and effects
Theories of public expenditure – effects on savings, investment and growth Burden of public debt
Union Finance – Trends in Revenue and Expenditure of the Government of India
State finance – Trends in Revenue and Expenditure of the State Governments
Public Debt – India’s Public debt since 1951 – growth composition, ownership pattern and debt management
Union-State Financial Relations – Horizontal and vertical imbalances; the Finance Commissions
Fiscal Policy and Fiscal Reforms in India


Monetary approach’ and adjustment in the balance of payments
Regional blocs – multilateralism and world trading system
The Political Economy of imposition of non-tariff barriers
International trade under conditions of imperfect competition in goods market
Theory of International reserves
Optimum Currency Areas – Theory and impact in the developed and developing countries
WTO and its impact on the different sectors of the economy


Components of money supply
Role, constituents and functions of money and capital markets
RBI – recent monetary and credit policies
Commercial banks and co-operative banks
Specialized financial and investment institutions
Non-Bank financial institutions and Regional Rural Banks


Industrial structure and economic growth
Pattern of industrialization – Public and Private; large and small industries
Theories of Industrial location – Indian experience
Industrial productivity – measurement, partial and total trends Industrial Finance in India
Industrial Labour – Problems, policies and reforms in India Economic Reforms and industrial growth


Population and Economic development – interrelation between population, development and environment, sustainable development
Malthusian theory of population, Optimum theory of population, theory of demographic transition, population as ‘Limits to Growth’ and as ‘Ultimate Source’
Concepts of Demography – Vital rates, Life tables, composition and uses, Measurement of fertility – Total fertility rate, gross and net reproduction rate – Age pyramids, population projection – stable, stationary and quasi-stationary population; characteristics of Indian population through recent census
Poverty in India – Absolute and relative; analysis of poverty in India
Environment as necessity – amenity and public goods; causes of environmental and ecosystem degeneration – policies for controlling pollution – economic and persuasive; their relative effectiveness in LDCs; Relation between population, poverty and environmental degradation – microplanning for environment and eco-preservation – water sheds, joint forest management and self-help groups
Role of State in environmental preservation – Review of environmental legislation in India


Role of Agriculture in Indian Economy – Share of Agriculture, interrelationship between agriculture and industry
Institutional aspects – Land reforms, Green revolution
Technological aspects – Agricultural inputs and shifts in production function
Capital formation in the rural sector – Savings, assets and credits
Strategies for rural development
Regional disparities in Indian agriculture
Cooperative movement in India – Organization, structure and development of different types of cooperatives in India


Application of Differential and Integral Calculus in theories of consumer behaviour, Production and pricing under different market conditions
Input-output analysis and linear programming
Application of Correlation and Regression
Testing of Hypothesis in Regression Analysis



Single Equation Linear Model :

Assumption and properties of OLS
Multiple Regression Model – Estimation and Interpretation
Multi-collinearity – Auto-correlation and heteroscedasticity – Causes, detection, consequences and remedy
Dummy variables, distributed lags – Need, limitations and interpretation
Applications in Economics

Simultaneous Equation models :

Structural and reduced forms
Endogenous and exogenous variables
Identification problems and conditions
Single equation methods of estimations – TSLS, indirect least squares and least variance ratio

Techniques of Forecasting :

Econometric properties of time series, Unit root, integrated series, random walk and white noise


Theory of Consumer Behaviour and Theory of Firms
Theory of Pricing – Monopoly, Monopolistic competition, Duopoly and Oligopoly
Theory of Games – Two-person, Zero-sum Game, Pure and Mixed strategy, Saddle point solution, Linear programming and input output analysis
Static and Dynamic Multiplier and Accelerator, Samuelson-Hicks trade cycle model.
Growth Models – Harrod and Domar, Neoclassical models – Solow, Meade, Kaldor’s Model with technological progress, endogenous growth models
Employment and output determination with fixed and flexible prices (IS-LM, Aggregate demand and aggregate supply analysis)

Elective -III

The Rise and Fall of Bretton-Wood and emerging International Monetary System World Trading System – Evolution and Distortions
Globalization – Developments in Exchange Markets, Euro-Currency Markets, and International Bond Markets, International Debt crisis
Theory of Foreign Exchange Markets – Exchange Trading, Arbitrage and Market Hedging

Elective – IV

Growth and Productivity trends in Indian Agriculture Development of distributive institutions – Costs and price policies Agricultural marketing and credit
Trends in migration and labour markets. Minimum Wages Act WTO and sustainable agricultural development Reforms in Indian agriculture

Elective – V

Planning and Economic Development
Costs, Prices, WTO and Indian Agriculture
Globalization, Liberalization and the Indian Industrial Sector
Infrastructure and Economic Development
Social Sector, Poverty and Reforms in India
Women, Environment and Economic Development
Trade Reforms and Liberalization
Financial sector reforms
Fiscal policy and fiscal reforms

UGC NET Psychology Syllabus:-


1. Perceptual Processes

Approaches to the Study of Perception : Gestalt and physiological approaches

Perceptual Organization : Gestalt, Figure and Ground, Laws of Organization

Perceptual Constancy : Size, Shape and Brightness, Illusion; Perception of Depth and Movements.

Role of motivation and learning in perception

2. Learning Process

Classical conditioning : Procedure, Phenomena and related issues

Instrumental learning : Phenomena, Paradigms and theoretical issues

Reinforcement: Basic variables and schedules

Verbal learning : Methods and materials, organizational processes

3. Memory and forgetting

Memory processes : Encoding, Storage, Retrieval

Stages of memory : Sensory memory, Short-term Memory (STM) and Long-term Memory (LTM)

Episodic and Semantic memory

Theories of Forgetting : Interference, decay, retrieval

4. Thinking and Problem Solving

Theories of thought processes : Associationism, Gestalt, Information processing

Concept formation : Rules and strategies

Reasoning : Deductive and inductive

Problem-solving : Type and strategies

Role of concepts in thinking

5 . Motivation and Emotion

Basic motivational concepts : Instincts, needs, drives, incentives, motivational cycle

Approaches to the study of motivation : Psychoanalytical, ethological, S-R Cognitive, humanistic

Biological Motives : Hunger, thirst, sleep and sex

Social Motives : Achievement, affiliation, approval Exploratory behaviour and curiosity Physiological correlates of emotions

Theories of emotions : James-Lange, Canon-Bard, Schachter and Singer

Conflicts : Sources and types

6. Human Abilities

Intelligence : Biological, Social, Eco-cultural determinants

Theories of intelligence : Spearman, Thurston, Guilford

Individual and group differences : Extent and causes

Measurement of human abilities

7. Personality

Determinants of personality : Biological and socio-cultural

Approaches to the study of personality : Psychoanalytic, neo-freudian, social learning, trait and type, cognitive

Personality assessment : Psychometric and projective tests Self-concept: Origin and development

8. Research Methodology

Research problems, hypothesis, variables and their Operationalization

Types of psychological research

Methods of psychological research : Experimental, Quasi-experimental, case studies, field studies and cross-cultural studies-

Methods of data collection : Observation, interview, questionnaire, tests and scales. Non-parametric tests

9. Measurement and testing

Test construction : Item writing, item analysis

test standardization : Reliability, validity and norms

Types of tests : Intelligence, aptitude, personality – characteristics and important examples

Attitude scales and interest inventories

Educational measurement and evaluation

10. Biological Basis of Behaviour

Receptors, effectors and adjuster mechanisms

Neural impulse : Origin, conduction and measurement

Sensory system : Vision and Audition

Human nervous system : Structure and functions




Signal detection theory, subliminal perception and related factors, information processing approach to perception, culture and perception, perceptual styles. Ecological perspective on perception.


Learning theories : Hull, Tolman, Skinner

Cognitive approaches in learning: Latent learning, observational learning

Experimental analysis of behaviour : Behaviour modification, shaping Discrimination learning

Neurophysiology of learning


Models of memory : Atkinson and Shiffrin, Craik and Lockhart, Tulving

Semantic memory : Episodic, trace model and network model

Long-term memory: Retrieval cues, flashbulb memory, constructive processes in memory, eyewitness testimony, autobiographical memory

Biological basis of memory : The search for the engram, PET scan, and biochemical factors in memory

Improving memory : Strategies

Unit – IV

Cognitive strategies : Algorhythms and heuristics

Convergent and divergent thinking

Decision-making; impediments to problem – solving

Creative thinking and problem-solving

Language and thought


Historical antecedents of motivation from Mechanism to Cognition

Cognitive bases of motivation : Intrinsic motivation, Attribution, Competence

Measurement of motives : Issues and techniques

Cross-cultural perspectives of motivation : Achievement, Aggression

Components of emotion: Physiological, expressive and cognitive

Neural mechanism of emotion : Central and peripheral

Measurent of emotions : Physiological, expressive and cognitive measures

Current theories of emotions and facial feedback hypothesis

Stress and coping : Reactions to stress, outcomes of stress


Theories of intelligence : Cattell, Jensen, Sternberg Goleman

Creativity : Views of Torrance, Getzels, Guilford

Intelligence and creativity : Relationship

Abilities and achievement : Concept and role of emotional intelligence


Clinical and growth approaches to personality

Existential and humanistic theories of personality : Frankl, Rollo May, Maslow, Rogers

Personality assessment : Projective, psychometric and behavioural measures

Psychology of self : Western and Eastern perspectives, measurement of self


Research designs : Correlational, factorial, randomized block, matched group, quasi-experimental, time series design

ANOVA : Randomized and repeated

Correlational analysis : Partial, multiple and regression analysis

Factor analysis : Assumptions, methods, rotation and interpretation


Psychological scaling : Purpose and methods

Sources of bias in psychological testing

Ethical issues in psychological testing

Application of factor analysis in standardization of tests-with Important illustrations


Methods of Physiological psychology : Lesion and Brain Stimulation

Sleep and waking : Stages of sleep, Disorders of sleep and Physiological mechanisms of sleep and waking

Ingestive Behaviour : Drinking and its neural mechanism; hunger and its neural mechanism

Endocrine system : Chemical and glandular



Elective - I

Current trends in Social Psychology

Social cognition

Social influence

Prosocial behaviour

Applied social psychology : Health, Environment and Law

Elective - II

Development processes : Nature, Principles and related

concepts – maturity, experience factors in development: Biogenic, Psychogenic and Sociogenic

Stages of Development : Theories of Development: Psychoanalytic, Behaviouristic and cognitive

Various aspects of development : Sensory-motor, cognitive, language, emotional, social and moral


Human development and individual differences

Motivation and learning

Factors in educational achievement

Social psychology of education

Teacher effectiveness

Guidance in schools : Needs, organizational set up and techniques

Counselling : Process and areas


Development of industrial and organizational psychology

Selection processes in organization

Organizational training

Performance appraisal

Motivation and work


Work environment

Organizational behaviour : Theories, socialization, effectiveness


Psychopathology : Concepts, classification and causes : clinical diagnostics

Common clinical disorders

Mental retardation

Mental Health : Intervention models and psychotherapies

UGC NET History Syllabus 2011:-



Sabha and Samiti
Doctrine of Karma
Dandaniti / Arthasastra
Stupa / Chaitya
Nagara / Dravida / Vesara
Bodhisattva / Tirthankara
Alvars / Nayanars
Kara / Vishti
Memorial stones
Madad-i-maash Amaram Raya-Rekho Jangama
Hundi ( Bills of Exchange)
Mansab (Rank)
Bengal Valshnavism
Economic Nationalism
Indian Renaissance
Economic Drain
Filtration Theory
Forward Policy
Doctrine of Lapse
Subsidiary Alliance
Mixed Economy
Indian Left
Hindu Code Bill


Sources :

Archaeological Sources
Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments
Literary Sources
Indigenous : Primary and Secondary – problems of dating, myths, legends, poetry, scientific literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.
Foreign accounts : Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

Pre-history and Proto-history

Man and Environment – geographical factors. Hunting and gathering (Paleolithic and Mesolithic ) .; Beginning of agriculture ( Neolithic and Chalcolithic).
Indus Valley Civilization – origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance.
Iron age ; Second urbanisation.

Vedic Period

Migrations and settlements ; dating the Vedic,-literary and archaealogical . evidences, evolution of social and political institutions ; religious and philosophical ideas, rituals and practices.

Period of Mahqjanapadas

Formation of States ( Mahajanapadas ) ; .Republics and Monarchies ; rise of urban centres ; trade routes ; economic growth ; introduction of coinage ; spread of Jainism and Buddhism ; rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Macedonian Invasions and their impact.

Malayan Empire

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra ; Ashoka ; Concept of Dharma ; Edicts ; Brahmi and Kharosthi scripts.
Administration ; economy ; architecture and sculpture ; external contacts.
Disintegration of the empire ; Sungas and Kanvas.

Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas )

Contact with outside world ; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art and architecture, literature and science.

Early state and society – in Eastern India, Deccan and South India

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age. Administration ; economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres, Buddhist centres, Sangam literature and culture ; art and architecture.

Imperial Guptas and Regional States of India

Guptas and Vakatakas, Harsha, Administration, economic conditions, coinage of the Guptas, land grants, decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, caste system, position of women, education and educational institutions – Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, contact with neighbouring countries – Central Asia, South-East Asia and China, Sanskrit literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

The Kadambas, Gangas, Pallavas and Chalukyas of Badami – Administration, trade guilds, Sanskrit literature and growth of regional languages and scripts ; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti Movement, Shankaracharya – Vedanta ; Institutions of temple and temple architecture.

Varmanas of Kamrup ; Palas and Senas, Rashtrakutas, Pratiharas, Kalachuri-Chedis ; Paramaras ; Chalukyas of Gujarat;. Arab contacts – Ghaznavl Conquest, Alberuni.

The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Cheras, Hoysalas, Pandyas – Administration and local Government, growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society, contact with Sri Lanka and South-East Asia.



Archaeological, epigraphic and numismatic materials and monuments. Chronicles.
Literary sources – Persian, Sanskrit and Regional languages. Archival materials. Foreign travellers’ accounts.

Political Developments

The Sultanate – the Ghorids, the Turks, the Khaljis, the Tughlaqs, the Sayyids and the Lodis.
Foundation of the Mughal Empire – Babur, Humayun and the Suris ; expansion from Akbar to Aurangzeb.
Decline of the Mughal empire – political, administrative and economic causes.
Later Mughals and disintegration of the Mughal empire.
The Vijayanagara and the Bahmanis – rise, expansion and disintegration.
The Maratha movement, the foundation of Swaraj by Shivaji ; its expansion under the Peshwas ; Maratha Confederacy – causes of decline.


Administration under the Sultanate – civil, judicial, revenue, fiscal and military.
Sher Shah’s administrative reforms ; Mughal administration – land revenue and other sources of income ; Mansabdari and Jagirdaii.
Administrative system in the Deccan – the Vijayanagara, the Bahmanis and the Marathas.

Economic Aspects

“Agricultural production – village economy ; peasantry. Urban centres and population.
Industries – cotton textiles, handicrafts, agro-based industries, organisation, factories, technology.
Trade and commerce – State policies, internal and external trade ; European trade, trade centres and ports, transport and communication.
Financing trade, commerce and industries ; Hundi ( Bills of Exchange ) and Insurance.

Socio-religious Movements

The Sufis – their orders, beliefs and practices, the leading Sufi saints.
Bhakti cult – Shaivism and its branches ; Vaishnavism and its branches.
The Saints of the medieval period – north and south – their impact on socio-political and religious life.
The Sikh movement – Guru Nanak Dev and his teachings and practices, Adi Granth ; the Khalsa.


Classification – ruling class, major religious groups, the mercantile and professional classes.
Rural society – petty chieftains, village officials, cultivators and non-cultivating classes, artisans.
Position of women.

Cultural Life

System of Educational and its motivations.
Literature – Persian, Sanskrit and Regional languages.
Fine Arts – Major schools of painting ; music.
Architectural developments of North and South India ; Indo-Islamic architecture.


Sources and Historiography:

Archival materials, biographies and memories, newspapers. Oral evidence, creative literature and painting.
Concerns in Modern Indian Historiography – Imperialist, Nationalist. Marxist and Subaltern.

Rise of British Power

European traders in India in the 17th and 18th centuries – Portuguese, Dutch, French and the British.
The establishment and expansion of British dominion in India.
British relations with and subjugation of the principal Indian Powers – Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad, Mysore, Marathas and the Sikhs.

Administration of the Company and Crown

Evolution of central and provincial structure under the East India Company, 1773 – 1853.
Paramountcy, Civil Service, Judiciary, Police and the Army under the Company and Crown.
Local Self-Government
Constitutional changes, 1909 – 1935.

Economic History

Changing composition, volume and direction of trade ; The Tribute. Expansion and commercialisation of agriculture, land rights, land settlements, rural indebtedness, landless labour.
Decline of industries – changing socio-economic conditions of artisans ; De-urbanisation.
British Industrial Policy ; major modern industries ; nature of factory legislation ; labour and trade union movements.
Monetary policy, banking, currency and exchange, Railways and Road Transport.
Growth of new urban centres ; new features of town planning and architecture.
Famines, and epidemics and the government policy. Economic Thought – English utilitarians ; Indian economic historians ; the Drain theory.

Indian Society in Transition

Contact with Christianity – the Missions ; critique of Indian social and economic practices and religious beliefs ; educational and other activities.
The New Education – Government policy ; levels and contents .English language ; modern science ; Indian initiatives in education.
Raja Rammohan Roy ; socio-religious reforms ; emergence of middle class ; caste associations and caste mobility.
Women’s Question – Nationalist Discourse ; Women’s Organisations ; British legislation concerning women ; Constitutional position.
The Printing Press – journalistic activity and the public opinion.
Modernisation of Indian languages and literary forms – reorientation in painting, music and performing arts.

National Movement

Rise of Indian nationalism, social and economic bases of nationalism. Revolt of 1857 and different social classes. Tribal and peasant movements.
Ideologies and programs of the Indian National Congress, 1885-1920. Trends in Swadeshi movement.
Ideologies and programs of Indian revolutionaries in India and abroad.
Gandhian Mass Movements.
Ideology and program of the Justice Party.
Left Wing Politics.
Movement of the Depressed classes.
Communal politics and genesis of Pakistan.

Towards Independence and Partition.

India after Independence (1947 – 1964)

Rehabilitation after Partition.
Integration of the Indian States ; The Kashmir Question.
The making of the Indian Constitution.
The structure of Bureaucracy and the Policy.
The demographic trends.
Economic policies and the planning process.
Linguistic reorganisation of States.

Foreign policy initiatives.

World History : Concepts, Ideas and Terms

Burial Practices
Law codes
Athenian Democracy
Imperial Rome
Manorial system
Black Death
Enlightened Despotism
Divine Right
Supremacy of Church
Holy Roman Empire
Social Contract and General Will
Nation States
Great Depression ( 1929 )
Non-alignment Parliamentary Democracy
Balance of Power
Rights of Man
Cold War

Research in History

Scope and value of History
Objectivity and Bias in History
History and its auxiliary sciences
Area of research – proposed
Sources – Primary / secondary in the proposed area of research
Modern Historical Writing in the researchers area of research



Unit -1

From the Indus Valley Civilization to the Mahajanapadas

Age, extent and characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Vedic culture – Early and Late – Geography : Social and Political institutions, Economic conditions. Religious and Philosophical ideas.
Mahajanapadas, Republics, Economic growth – Emergence of Jainism and Buddhism – Rise of Magadha – Macedonian invasion and its effects.

Unit – II

History of India from 4th Century BC to 3rd Century AD

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire – Chandragupta, Asoka and his Dhamma, Mauryan administration, Economy, Art and Architecture, Disintegration of the Mauryan empire.
Sangam Age
Sungas, Satvahanas and Kushanas : Administration, religion, society, economy, trade and commerce, culture – Art and architecture, Literature.


India from the 4th century AD to 12th century AD
Gupta – Vakataka Age – Harsha-Pallavas – Early Chalukyas – Rashtrakutas-Cholas-Pratiharas-Palas – A brief survey of the history of the Paramaras, Kalachuris, Gahadavalas and Chauhans – Administration.
Feudalism. Society, Position of Women, Educational centres,’ Economy. Religious trends, styles of temple architecture, art, literature, An outline of scientific and technological developments.
India’s contacts with the outside world.

Unit – IV

India from 1206 to 1526

Expansion and Consolidation -; The Ghorids. The Turks. The Khaljis,
The Tughlaqs, The Sayyids and the Lodis.
Vijayanagar and Bahamani Kingdoms.
State and Religion – Concept of sovereignty, Religious movements and Sufism.
Economic Aspect – Urban Centres, Industries, Trade and Commerce, Land Revenue and Prices.
Mongol problem and its impact.
Administrative structure.
Art, Architecture and Literature,
Sources – Archaeological, Persian and non-Persian literature, Foreign travellers’ account.


India from 1526 onward

Sources of Mughal period.
Mughal Expansion and Consolidation – Babur’s establishment of Mughal rule in India ; Humayun and Surs ; Akbar* Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.
Mughal relations with the nobility and the Rajputs.
Jahangir – the period of stability and expansion 1611-1621 ; the period of crises 1622-1627 – The Nurjahan Junta.
Decline of Mughal Empire ‘.Political, administrative and economic causes.
The Maratha Movement, the foundation of Swarajya by Shivaji — its expansion and administration, Maratha Confederacy and causes of decline.
Administration : Sher Shah’s administrative reforms, Mughal administration, land revenue and other sources of income, Mansabdari and Jagirdari.

Unit – VI

Socio-economic and cultural life under the Mughals

Village society and economy ‘
Art, architecture and literature
Trade and Commerce
Religious policy from Akbar to Aurangzeb
Urban centres and Industries
Position of women

Unit - VII

Foundation of the British Rule .

Rise of European powers – Expansion and Consolidation of the British rule.
British relations with major Indian powers – Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad, Mysore, Marathas and Sikhs.
Administration under the East India Company and Crown, Paramountcy, Civil Service, Judiciary. Police and Army.
Local Self-Government, Constitutional Development from 1909 to 1935.


Economic and Social Policies

Agrarian policy of the British, Land Revenue, Agriculture and Land Rights, Famine policy, Rural indebtedness.
Policy towards trade, and industries, Condition of Labour. Trade Union Movements, Factory Legislation, Banking, Transport, Drain Theory.
Indian Society in transition, Christian missions, Socio-religious reform movements, Status of women.
New educational policy, English language, Modern sciences, Journalism, Indian languages and literature.


National Movement and Post-Independent India

Rise of nationalism, Revolt of 1857, Tribal and Peasant Movements, Ideologies and Programs of Indian National Congress, Swadeshi Movement, Indian Revolutionary Movement in India and abroad.
Gandhian Mass Movements, Ideologies and Programs of the Justice Party ; Left wing politics, Movement of the depressed classes, Genesis of Pakistan, India towards Independence, and Partition.
India after Independence, Rehabilitation after partition, Integration of Indian States, the Kashmir Question.
Making of the Indian Constitution, Structure of Bureaucracy and the police, Economic policies and the planning process, Linguistic reorganisation of the States, foreign policy initiatives.

Unit-X. (A)

World History — Concepts, Ideas and Terms

Renaissance, Reformation

Enlightenment, Rights of Man
Parliamentary Democracy
Efforts at World Peace, Cold War

Unit – X (B)

Research in History

Scope and Importance of History
Objectivity and Bias in History
Causation in History
History and its auxiliary sciences
Significance of Regional History
Recent trends of Indian History
Research Methodology
Area of Proposed Research
Sources – Primary / Secondary in the Proposed area of Research. Recent Historical writings in the Proposed area of Research.



Elective -I : Ancient Indian History

Stone-Age Cultures of India
Origin, date, extent and characteristics of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Evolution of social and political institutions in the Vedic period
Economic and religious developments in 6th century BC

Sources of Mauryan History – Megasthenes, Kautilya, Asokan edicts and Simhalese chronicles

Economy and trade during 2nd century BC – 3rd century AD – Schools of art – Development of Stupa and Chaitya architecture
Assessment of the Gupta Age
Ancient Indian Republics – History of Local Self-Government in India Indian feudalism
Indian contacts with the outside world in the ancient period
Contribution of Sankara and Ramanuja to religion and philosophy

Elective – II : Medieval Indian History

Sources on Medieval Indian History
North-West frontier and Deccan Policy of the Mughals
Society and Economy during Medieval period
Religion, Art, Architecture and Literature during Medieval period
Urban Economy, Trade and Commerce during Medieval period
Legacy of the Mughals
18th Century Debate
Significance of Regional History

Elective – III : Modern Indian History

The Establishment and Expansion of the British Dominion in India
Constitutional Development from 1858 to 1935
The British Agrarian Policies
The Relief Measures adopted by the British
Education and Social Reforms Under the British
Socio-Religious Reform Movements in the 19th Century
Rise of Nationalism and the Indian National Congress
The Gandhian Era
Towards Independence and Partition
The Making of the Indian Constitution and its working
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